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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blechoel, v.r.s.connected with a joint; always; do habitually; invariably do.
blechoel a blech; mla obech, di ngar er ngii er a bek el taem; mechir, mech, blechelel.
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delidai, v.r.s.accompanied; braided.
delidai a mla medidai; melidai a odak a edei el kakeakl e doidai el mo tang, chui a delidai.
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delobech, v.r.s.(tree) chopped down; (hand; finger; etc.) cut.
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ilus, v.r.s.rowed; paddled; stirred.
ilus a mla meius; imus a mlai el merael; isal a mlai.
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teltekakl, v.r.s.plucked or torn off; pulled at.
teltekakl a nglai er a ulach; mla metetekakl a dui; totekakl a llel a tuu; teteklel.
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ulechur, v.r.s.counted; included.
ulechur a ulecherungel; mla mochur; nglai a ildisel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bkebukel, v.a.s.is to be peeled (off).
bkebukel a obibkobk; beot el mengai a budel, obibkobk, mkebkii, tuu a bkebukel el kall.
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chedukl, v.a.s.is to be paved with stones.
chedukl a kirel el mechades; chodesii a rael, chemades, olbed a chedukl, chedesel.
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dengeball, v.a.s.is to be covered.
dengeball a dengobel, kirel el medangeb; melangeb er ngii, dongebii, duangeb a olekang; dengebel
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keriil, v.a.s.is to be asked or inquired.
keriil a kirel el meker; korir er a udoud, kmer a tekoi, merreder a keriil a tekoi er ngii, keril.
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ocheruul, v.a.s.is to be filled with liquid.
ocheruul a kirel el mokeek, ralm a ocheruul er a butiliang; mesuk er a chelsel; mecherur a ollumel; ocherul.
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sechesechall, v.a.s.is to be stuffed; (gun) is to be cocked or set.
sechesechall a kirel mesechesech; locha kelel a boes; melechesech, sochesech a bosir, sechesechel.
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tichall, v.a.s.is to be lighted or illuminated.
tichall a kirel el metuich; tuiechii a rael; tmuich a ngikel, tichel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
telengtungdwild tamarind; lead tree.telengtungdwild tamarind; lead tree.
uidglue; resin; fuel for lamp.muduidsticky; adhesive.
rirfallen leaves of kebui.merirthe color yellow.
chedeadjellyfish; nettle.chedead not knowing where to go.
burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.
baikingdisease; germs.baiking(person) unsanitary/unhygienic (in one's habits).
cheludechwooden float for fish net; light weight wood used to make corks.cheludech(wood) dried out (and light in weight).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
smiich a rengulfeel proud about (someone).
becheremremangel a rengulgreedy; stingy.
diak lemesim a rengulstick to one's convictions; not change one's mind.
belengel a rengulastonishment/amazement.
ulserechakl a rengulcalm; unexcitable.
bebeot a rengulrather undecided about something; not taking something too seriously.
melemedem er a rengulcool down one's anger.

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