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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bldoel, v.r.s.having something in the hand.
bldoel a olab, bldoel a udoud.
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cherritem, v.r.s.having had a sticky substance applied.
cherritem a mla mecheritem; chirtemii, cherritem er a chutem, mengesechusem er a medal el oba chas, chertemel.
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delul, v.r.s.broiled; roasted; sunburned.
delul a mla medul er a ngau.
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rrar, v.r.s.(food) heated so as not to spoil; (hands, etc.) warmed over or next to fire.
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uldois, v.r.s.increased; added to.
uldois a mla mudois; mla morngii a dechelel; remechitechut a obdois a blingelir er a kall; udisel a kelir.
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ulekbeot, v.r.s.made easy/cheap.
ulekbeot a rruul el beot; diak el meringel el urreor; urreor a ulekbeot me a rechad a meses a rengrir; ukbetengel.
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ultaor, v.r.s.dropped and stuck in crotch of tree.
ultaor a telenget; mla motaor; ert a ultaor me ng diak lorael, urrached el bambuu a mla mtorii a ert; utorel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chesuchall, v.a.s.is to be given tortoise shell money.
chesuchall a kirel el mechesiuch; chosuchii a buchelsechal, mengesiuch, msa chesuchel.
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esemall, v.a.s.is to be tried out/challenged.
esemall a kirel el measem; meues el mo ungil, kirel mo er a omelasem er a uchei er a bo ltobed; esemii, esemel a ngloik.
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kedelsall, v.a.s.is to be made thicker.
kedelsall a kirel el mo kedols; kilungii, mengedols er ngii; mo klou, kodelsii, kedelsel.
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ngebtall, v.a.s.(newborn baby) is to have membrane washed off.
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ochiuall, v.a.s.is to be put to sleep.
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redemall, v.a.s.is to have handle put on; is to be installed or attached.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
meduumale genitals (large).meduubreadfruit.
kurstwitching (nervous disorder) .kurstwitching (nervous disorder) .
tebullswelling; earth mound.tebullbulging, hanging.
ngulasthma.ngulasthmatic; suffering from a bout of asthma.
butgenitals; anus; vagina; bottom (surface).bekebut(woman) having large buttocks or vagina; (man) having large buttocks.
cheisechpermanent stain.cheisechpermanent stain.
klukuktomorrow; the next or following day.klukuk be tomorrow; be the next or following day.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
omatek er a rengul restrain ones desire to do something; keep ones desire(s) to oneself.
kedeb a rengulshort tempered; impatient.
rrau a rengulconfused/puzzled by/about.
temetel a rengulpleasing of one's heart.
turk a rengulturk
songerenger a rengulhave a strong desire for; lust after.
mimokl a rengulbroad-minded.

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