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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blibii, v.r.s.sorted out.
blibii a mla obibii; merurous, betok el blii, rrurous, omii, bingel.
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keltkat, v.r.s.(wound) irritated.
keltkat a telemall; delobech, terechel, keltkat a ochil, ketketil a uach.
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selibech, v.r.s.(branches, etc.) broken off.
selibech a mla mesibech; iedel a selibech a rechelel, sibechii, suibech el mei er eou; sbechel
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ulenganget, v.r.s.lowered; demoted; held or kept back.
ulenganget a mla ngmanget; ngar a uriul; ulenganget er a rurt; ngengetel.
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uliitel, v.r.s.(liquid) poured (into container).
uliitel a mla moitel; mla mochubel; ilumel a uliitel er a kob; oitelii a ralm; oitel a ilumel; olechubel; oitelel.
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ulkibetiekl, v.r.s.startled; scared; surprised.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bekengall, v.a.s.is to be opened or spread apart.
bekengall a kirel el obok; mkisii, omok a medal, mekengii a chesimer, bekengel.
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chisisall, v.a.s.are to be piled up one on top of the other.
chisisall a meleket; kirel el mechisois; choisisii, choisois a babier, mengisois er a blil, chisisel a blai.
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diberdall, v.a.s.is to be laid crosswise.
diberdall kirel el medbard; diak le llemolem; mo delbard, diberdii a bambuu er a rael el melenget.
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ochertall, v.a.s.is to be taken to the toilet.
ochertall a kirel el mochert; olechert, ochertii a ngalek; chemei; ochertel.
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ochisall, v.a.s.is to be emptied.
ochisall a kirel el mochis; diak el ochisall a ollumel, di kirel el ngar ngii a ilumel; ochisir a klengoes.
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oketmekill, v.a.s.is to be arranged or put in a proper place.
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tetkall, v.a.s.is to be pointed at or appointed.
tetkall a kirel el metutk; tutkii a bobai; tmutk a mengur; tetkel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
cheludechwooden float for fish net; light weight wood used to make corks.cheludechwooden float for fish net; light weight wood used to make corks.
dechuswart; mole.dechus having warts.
chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermallcheromel
beraomfish kept until slightly spoiled and then wrapped and barbequed.beraomfish kept until slightly spoiled and then wrapped and barbequed.
tebullswelling; earth mound.tebull a medalangry-looking.
cheolubarnacles.cheolu covered with barnacles.
cheballwhite-leafed taro (yautia); gray/white hair.cheballgray-haired; white-haired.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
berngel a rengulanything discouraging to one's spirit.
melamet er a renguldo things as one pleases.
luut er a rengulanything causing one to lose one's resolve.
diak lemesim a rengulstick to one's convictions; not change one's mind.
oubuch a rengultreat person as if he or she were one's spouse.
mechuached a rengulevil; mean; stubborn.
olsebek er a rengulworry (unintentionally); startle.

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